Puppies generally refer to dogs that are weaned from 35 to 45 days to 6 months old. Puppies are the most difficult stage in dog breeding, especially pet puppies within 3 months of age. At this stage, puppies have just been weaned and left their mothers, and their living environment and food have changed. Among them, the period from weaning to 50 days old is the most dangerous period. The main reason is the rapid disappearance of maternal antibodies and the puppies have not been vaccinated. If the feeding and management are not good, it is easy to cause the puppies to contract viral diseases and even die.
Daily supplies of nutrients like reasonable energy, protein, minerals and vitamins are necessary. It is recommended to choose professional full-price dog food according to different breeds. For example, if you are raising a large dog breed, you can choose a puppy dog food for a large dog; if you are raising a small dog breed, you can choose a diet that corresponds to your body size. Professional dog food is prepared according to professional formulas, and the nutrition is generally balanced. If it is homemade dog food, vitamins and minerals can be added appropriately. Homemade dog food is easy to be nutritionally unbalanced and inconvenient to use, so long-term use is not recommended.
Feeding of puppies within 3 months old
Feeding times. The puppies at this stage should be fed a small amount of meals, and the number of feedings should be no less than 4 times a day, preferably 4 to 5 times per day.
Soak the dog food. At this stage, it is generally recommended that dog food be soft-fed in warm water. Freshly-weaned puppies, dry food is not easy to digest, and the teeth are not straight. In order to facilitate the puppies to eat, they can be soaked in warm water at 60~80 ℃ before feeding, so that the puppies can adapt to the change from liquid food to solid food. transition. When making dog food, the water temperature should not be too high, otherwise, it will damage the nutrients in the dog food. Do not use too much water. It is better that the dog food can just absorb the water. If there is too much water, the excess water should be drained during feeding to avoid nutrient loss.
Feeding of puppies after 3 months old
Feeding times. This stage, it can be fed 3 times a day. Feed regularly, at fixed points, and quantitatively every day, and control the amount of feeding. Some puppies do not feel full, so they can eat as much as 80% of the puppies.
Feed dry dog food directly. The teeth of the puppies are all around 3 months old, and the dog food should be gradually changed to dry dog food. Dry dog food with a certain hardness is good for dog teeth. It is beneficial to the loss of milk teeth when changing teeth, reduces the adhesion of food residues to the teeth, and reduces bad breath.
Precautions for feeding
One is that the temperature of dog food should be kept between 30~38 ℃ after soaking. Note that the temperature should not be too low to avoid gastrointestinal discomfort or diarrhea in puppies. Second, there should be a transitional adaptation period of about 1 week for dog food replacement. The development of puppies’ gastrointestinal function is not perfect, and their adaptability is poor. When changing new dog food, it should be done gradually, with a transition period of about 1 week. You can refer to the following methods for gradual replacement: the first step, 2/3 old dog food + 1/3 new dog food, feed for 2 to 3 days; the second step, 1/2 old dog food + 1/2 new dog food, Feed for 2 to 3 days; in the third step, 1/3 old dog food + 2/3 new dog food, feed for 2 to 3 days. After the above-mentioned transition period, it is completely transitioned to the new dog food. The third is to keep food fresh and not to feed moldy and spoiled food. Fourth, it is not recommended to feed leftovers to puppies, even if they need to be fed, the excess salt should be washed away before feeding.
The development of the various functions of the puppies’ body is not perfect, the resistance is poor, and the adaptability is poor. A little carelessness may cause diseases like parvovirus, canine distemper, and colds. Specifically, the following measures should be taken.
Do a good job of cold and warm
The suitable temperature for the puppies after weaning is 20~23 ℃, and the puppies can easily get sick as soon as they catch a cold. When the temperature is low, the kennel should be covered with mats to keep warm, and depending on the weather, use electric blankets, heat preservation lamps, etc. for heating.
Do a good job of cleaning and sanitation.
Regular cleaning and disinfection.
Keep the food bowl clean, wash it every meal, and disinfect the kennel and food bowl regularly.
Keep the dog’s body clean.
Groom the puppies regularly, trim their toenails, clean their ears, and keep them dry. Grooming often helps to remove dead hair that has fallen off and enhances the relationship between the owner and the dog. For puppies within 3 months, if they are too dirty, they can be dry-cleaned with dry-cleaning powder or disposable shampoo. Washing with water is not recommended to avoid catching a cold or inducing other diseases. If the puppies are wet with urine or water, they should be blown dry in time to avoid catching a cold. After vaccination is completed at the age of 3 months, the dog can be trained in daily bathing and nursing work, so that the dog will gradually adapt to the series of grooming and washing operations in the pet shop at a young age.
When puppies start to change their teeth at the age of 3 to 4 months, regularly chew the molar sticks to allow them to bite freely, which is conducive to the loss of milk teeth and prevents the formation of double rows of teeth.
Do a good job in disease prevention
Regular preventive deworming. Common parasites in dogs include nematodes, tapeworms, toxoplasma gondii, etc. Some of them are zoonotic. Regular deworming can reduce the chance of infection in humans and dogs. Unweaned puppies need to be dewormed for the first time at around 20 days of age. After weaning, they will be dewormed again, then once a month afterwards, and once every quarter after 6 months of age.
Do a good job in disease immunization. The puppies are pre-wormed after weaning. If there is no abnormality in the body after 1 week, the immune prevention of canine parvovirus disease, canine distemper, rabies and other diseases can be carried out. The basic method of puppies’ basic immunization is to inject three infectious disease vaccines and one rabies vaccine. Commonly used infectious disease vaccines are generally combined vaccines, including double vaccines, quadruple vaccines, etc. The pet owner can choose according to his needs. Most of the imported vaccines are injected once every 3 weeks, and the rabies vaccine needs to be injected once the dog is 3 months old. After the puppies have completed the basic immunization, the vaccine can be injected once a year in the future. After vaccination, the environment should be kept stable. No vigorous exercise, and no bathing within 1 week.
Avoid contact with complex environments. Before completing the basic immunization, the antibody level of parvovirus and canine distemper in the body is low. Try not to go to grass, public places, pet hospitals and other complex environments to play, and avoid contact with other dogs.
Well-trained pet dogs can promote the harmonious coexistence of dogs and humans, and alleviate the many problems that pet dogs bring to humans. Well-trained pet dogs can better reflect the value of dogs and win the love of others. Dog training should start from an early age so that it can develop good behavior habits. The age of 4-12 weeks is the most critical and most plastic period in a dog’s life. The basic principle and method of dog training are to train repeatedly to form a conditioned reflex; if errors are found, stop them in time, and use strict and fixed language to say “NO ” alike. After doing the right thing, the dog should promptly say “good” and “good” and another complimentary language and cooperate with the food reward. The following mainly introduces basic behavior habits training closely related to life.
Train to sleep in a cage
Puppies are young and have poor self-control. Training dogs to sleep in cages is conducive to the training of puppies for fixed-point defecation. On the other hand, when the owner is not at home, put the puppies in the cage to effectively prevent the puppies from biting indiscriminately. Household items damage the home environment. At the beginning of training, you can use snacks to induce the puppies to enter the cage by themselves. After the puppies enter, give the dog timely praise and food rewards; close the cage door and let the dog stay in the cage. If the dog does not bark, praise it. Criticize it if it barks. When the dog is not barking, the owner pretends to leave, keeping the dog invisible, and returns to praise and reward the dog in time after a short period of time. Repeatedly, slowly extend the owner’s time away until the puppies can adapt to staying in the cage independently. At the beginning of training, you can also put the dog in the cage and lift it to the owner’s side, so that you can see the owner increase the sense of security. It is also convenient to stop barking in time.
Training point defecation
The fixed-point urination and defecation should start after the puppies first arrive at their new home. Preparing a sleeping cage for the puppies is conducive to the training of fixed-point feces and urine. When training, you can use newspaper to stick some puppies’ feces and urine in designated defecation places, like toilets, etc., or spray some defecation inducers. When the dog has irritable movements such as turning circles and smelling everywhere, it will be taken to the designated defecation point and issued. A password like “pee” can only be left after the dog is pulled, and the dog can learn it after repeated training so many times. There are two opportunities to seize when training. One is after eating and the other is after waking up. Dogs usually need to defecate during these two times. When the pet owner is not at home, has no time to play or sleep with the dog, keep the dog in the cage. The first thing the dog does after getting out of the cage is to take it to the designated point for defecation. If the puppies do not defecate at the designated point, they must catch the current, stop it in time, criticize it severely, say “NO”, clean up the excrement and urine in time, and spray odor deodorant to prevent the dog from defecating at this location next time. It is particularly pointed out that when puppies are pulling indiscriminately, they must be caught and criticized in time.
Training good eating habits
If the puppies suddenly stop to play or be picky during feeding, remove the food bowl and let the dog see it. You can only feed it until the next meal. Repeat the training several times to make the dog get used to good eating habits.
Training not to pick up things on the ground
Puppies are not allowed to pick up and eat things on the ground. One reason is that they are unsanitary, and the other is that they may eat some dangerous foreign objects, such as buttons, pebbles, nails, plastics, bones, and toxic substances. During training, you can take the dog outdoors, deliberately put food on the ground so that the dog can see it. When the dog makes the action of picking up food, immediately pull the leash, and promptly send out “NO” and another prohibitive language. After repeated many times When the dog sees that the food on the ground no longer picks up and eats, it immediately sends out praise words such as “good” and gives food rewards.
Training it not to flip through the trash can
It is the same as the above training dogs not picking up things on the ground to eat. They deliberately put food into the trash can. When the dog is close to the trash can and is about to turn over, stop it in time and train many times. You can also spray some unpleasant odors in the trash can, like Fengyoujing, to train the dog not to turn the trash can.
Train it not to bark
Pet dogs barking at home is one of the most complaints from the neighborhood. Barking is originally a dog’s nature. One of the original functions of a domestic dog is to look after the home. When there is an abnormal sound, the dog will bark, and the puppies may also bark when they are alone at home or feel unsafe. No matter when and where, don’t over pet the dog, as long as the dog barking should be stopped in time.
Training for barking at home alone: You can keep the puppies alone in a room. At first, the owner will talk to him outside the door. If you bark, stop it in time. If you don’t bark, go in to praise and reward him. Slowly Transition until the owner does not make a sound outside the door for a long time, and the dog does not bark, so repeated training.
Knocking and barking training: two people are required to complete the training. One owner is with the puppies at home, and the other is knocking at the door. At the beginning, you can call the dog’s name while knocking on the door. If the dog barks, the owner in the house should stop it in time, repeat this, and then transition until the owner does not make a sound when knocking on the door until the puppies stop barking. When the training is effective, it should be praised and rewarded in time.
Corrective training of feeding behavior
Protecting food is the nature of a dog, it is the need of primitive survival, but pet dogs and their owners are no longer hostile relations, this kind of food protection should no longer exist. During the training of the feeding behavior correction, you can put the food in the food bowl and feed it with your hand. When the dog threatens the food and barks, immediately remove the food and yell at it. Compliment the dog in time when it is quiet, say “good” or “good” to it, touch it gently, and then give it food. Continue to adopt this “give” and “take away” method of training until the dog does not protect the food. When the dog can eat quietly, he can change the feeding place with his hand holding the food bowl. Make the dog realize that its food is given by the owner and absolutely surrender to the owner.
Training begins with puppies, and as soon as you find it bashing, you must pull the leash in time and give appropriate punishments, such as lightly scraping their noses, severely criticizing them, or temporarily depriving them of opportunities to play. Also, when choosing a puppy, do not choose a strong breed as a pet dog.